I am an assistant professor in the Sociology Department at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. I hold a PhD in Jurisprudence and Social Policy from UC Berkeley, where I graduated in 2013.

_DSC1741-21I seek to understand why we (societies) punish in the ways we do at different times and places in history. In particular, I am interested in how penal change is possible—what causes a society to adopt new practices or abandon old ones, and what limits are placed on individuals’ efforts to effect change. I approach these questions through two lines of inquiry.

First, I examine punishment historically focusing on particular periods and “moments” of change. My recent research primarily focuses on the period considered the “birth” of the prison in America (1776-1865)—the period during which the prison became most entrenched in our penal imagination—but my work extends from 1682 to ~1920. Increasingly, I have become less interested in social contextual explanations for penal change and more interested in the factors internal to the penal system, including the organizations, administrators, and front-line workers charged with meting out punishment and the technologies of punishment themselves. My research examines the lasting consequences of these internal factors, not only for penal practice, but also for penal policy and change.

Second, I examine prisoners’ adaptations to prison life—especially those activities that have been or may be labeled as resistance. My research on prisoners’ frictional activities and political resistance seeks to understand not only why prisoners engage in such activities but also under what circumstances this behavior leads to significant policy change. A major theme underlying these projects is an interest in how this behavior is interpreted by the prisoners themselves and others and with what consequences.

Why Punishment?

Understanding why we punish how we do—whether at the policy level or behind the scenes in practice—is incredibly important, particularly in the current context of American mass incarceration. Punishment is a powerful social institution that reflects and shapes important realities about a society, especially that society’s social ordering along class, race, and gender lines. Consequently, punishment affects not only those experiencing punishment, but also those beyond its technical reach.

Empirical Approach

I approach the sociology of punishment by examining penal philosophy, policy, and practice at the individual, organizational, and societal (state/national) levels. As an interdisciplinary scholar, I embrace variety, always searching for the best tools to answer my research questions. I employ both qualitative and quantitative methods and utilize both historical and contemporary data. My research spans micro- and macro-levels of analysis. I draw from organizational theory, law and society, penal history, and prison sociology.


My primary professional associations are the Law and Society Association (LSA), American Society of Criminology (ASC), American Sociological Association (ASA), and the American Society of Legal History (ASLH). I am a former member of the LSA Board of Trustees (rotating off at the end of this year), a former member of the Section Council for the ASA Section for Sociology of Law, and a current member of the Section Council for the Crime, Law, and Deviance Section of ASA. I am currently the book review editor (for North and South America) for Punishment & Society; an editorial board member for Law & Social Inquiry (LSI), the Howard Journal of Crime and Justice, and Incarceration; and I am a past guest editor for an LSI Book Symposium and Social Justice. With Hadar Aviram, I co-organize the Law and Society CRN 27 Punishment & Society. I also chair the Punishment & Society Digital Speaker Series committee that I spearheaded in early 2018 with Sarah Lageson and Rose Ricciardelli.

I seek to be a major advocate for junior scholars at my home university and abroad. In addition to welcoming formal and informal mentorship roles with students around North America, I organized the Junior Scholars Workshop at the joint annual meetings for the Law and Society Association and the Canadian Law and Society Association (in Toronto, Canada, in June 2018). In 2020, I was on the LSA Graduate Student Workshop Committee (workshop switched to online because of the pandemic). Finally, I have written a friendly guide (forthcoming with Stanford University Press) to qualitative methods aimed at early career researchers (and others new to qualitative methods); it challenges the notion that there is one right way to do qualitative methods and addresses head on the anxiety that goes with doing research (and everything else in academia). Students and junior faculty: please feel free to reach out. I am available to meet at conferences and also talk via Zoom, Skype, and phone.

Research Projects